Coffee and climate change are two vital factors, and we can’t complete the discussion without writing about these. A full cup of coffee is rich in nutrition, but it is becoming difficult and expensive to obtain with time. Global warming, deforestation, and pest-related diseases are becoming the ultimate threat.
Types of coffee flavours and coffee taste
There are different types of coffee flavours, as we know that all coffees aren’t the same. Every region has a different taste of coffee beans. In short, coffee is like food that comes in different flavours, textures, and smells. Many factors determine all these things. So, it is vital to know more about this and how coffee is on the verge of extinction.
Coffee and climate change: Is your morning cup of coffee is in danger?
Coffee is one of the most consumable products, and we see fluctuation in price every year. Due to the price change, it is the second most trad-able item after oil.
According to the stats, 125 million people rely on the coffee industry for employment. I hope you all are already aware of the worst effects and conditions of climate change. But do you know that your morning coffee is on the verge of extinction? Yes, you heard it right, and it’s all happening due to climate change.
According to the chairman of Starbucks:
“Climate change is a long-term threat for Starbucks, and climate change is playing a bigger role in making the destiny of coffee.”
We all know that extreme weather condition leads to drought, diseases, and insects. So, all these factors affect the coffee taste, growth, and quality. According to an estimation, high-quality coffee beans could be unproductive by the end of 2050. So, it’s an alarming situation for the world, and as a result, the coffee price will skyrocket.
Famous types of coffee flavours in the world:
There are many types of coffee flavours in the world. But it depends on your taste buds which type do you like the most.
Few famous types of coffee beans that are available in the world:
|Coffee beans||Highlighted quality|
|Kenya coffee beans||Coffee beans from this country are known for their buttery texture.|
|Costa Rica coffee beans||It offers one of the best and high-quality coffee beans.|
|Yemen Mocha coffee beans||Yemen is known as the cradle of coffee|
|Panama Geisha coffee beans||Geisha is simply the complex coffee in the world|
|Ethiopian Yirgacheffe and Harrar coffee||Locals appreciate and like this type of coffee.|
Apart from this, Jamaican blue mountain, Mocha java coffee, Sumatra coffee, and Hawaii coffee beans are among the most famous types.
All these countries give variety to this world. But these regions are dealing with the worst climate change that is affecting coffee production and flavours.
Does location affect coffee taste and production?
Coffee has become an integral part of Americans’ lives. According to an estimation, 60% of wild coffee species and 75 plants are on the edge of extinction. There is a list of significant countries producing a big chunk of coffee to meet the world’s demand.
But coffee demand is growing, and new suppliers are entering emerging markets. For instance, China and Nepal are significant contributors, and they are enhancing their suppliers. Many farmers have raised adverse effects of climate change and pests on coffee production. It is a condition that occurs when the weather changes within the context of a longer time frame.
There are many countries where the economy is surviving due to coffee production. If we see the broader perspective of coffee and climate change, then there are three main factors:
How climate change affects coffee production:
By the word TERROIR, we mean the natural environment from where coffee derives its origin. Thus, many factors combine to make the perfect terroir for the production of coffee.
The top elements include:
The soil, climate, and altitude of any place combine and help coffee plants to grow. The following chart is mentioning other vital information about these factors:
Soil: If soil is filled with natural elements, then it plays a vital role in forming the shape, body, and acidity of the beans. However, due to this, the beans from Brazil tastes different from the grains produced in Costa Rica. The main difference in coffee taste is due to the tropical and volcanic soil. In short, volcanic soil tends to be the best when it comes to producing high-quality beans.
Altitude: If you grow the coffee at a high altitude, then the coffee will taste sweeter. The change in taste happens due to cool temperature as it’s elevated from the ground.
Climate: One of the most significant factors that play a vital role in making coffee tastier. For coffee production, rainy and dry temperatures both play an essential role. For instance, the coffee produced at a cool temperature is sweeter and more acidic. Cool temperatures are best when it comes to creating more complexity during the maturation process.
Moreover, these factors contribute to overall coffee taste.
The geographic location plays a crucial part in coffee taste. There are different types of geographical areas due to which we see different types of coffee flavours. There is a term “BEAN BELT” or “COFFEE BELT.” We use these two terms when the area lands in a tropical band that extends 30 degrees “NORTH” and “SOUTH” of the tropics. So, this territory is perfect for coffee production due to the best climate, temperature, and fertile soil. Here is the list of those countries that produce high-quality beans within the bean belt.
- South America
- Central America
These regions grow the best coffee, but many countries on the list produce high-quality beans. So, it’s like a treat to taste buds if you get the chance to drink these beans.
Farming techniques and practices:
It is another crucial thing that helps to make or break the coffee taste. If the farming techniques aren’t up to the mark, then it can destroy the coffee taste. It’s a fact that soil, climate change, and temperature play a vital role in coffee production. But the result depends on the efforts that a farmer put in the process. Thus, use the pesticide and other advanced techniques to grow high-quality coffee beans.
How is climate change affecting coffee production?
We all know that coffee culture is at its peak and has become an integral part of our lives. But if we want to meet the demand, then we must pay attention towards production. According to the stats, coffee production has tripled since 1960, but the average consumption increases up to 5% every year. So, if we want to save coffee, then we must pay attention to climate change.
The best climate for coffee production:
A tropical environment is best for coffee production and cultivation. Moreover, moderate rainfall is also mandatory for the best coffee taste. Thus, if any of these factors is missing, then the coffee plant can perish. Furthermore, if the weather is hot, it will cause pest attacks and other threatening diseases. Here is the coffee bean that has immense demand:
Arabica contributes 70% of the world’s coffee production. As per stats, total world consumption is 2.25 billion cups per day.
But current climate change conditions are putting drastic impacts on coffee production. If this situation remains the same few more years, then coffee beans will be considered a luxury. So, if we want to deal with this worst situation, then we should take preventive actions.
Coffee and climate change: Impacts of changing conditions:
“Climate change is playing a bigger role and impacting the quality and quantity of the coffee.”
The temperature is going to increase every year which will generate new problems. Apart from this, global warming, deforestation, and pest diseases majorly contribute to the decline in production and taste. Coffee is a $70 billion industry that farms of Africa and Latin America established.
But climate change is a severe threat. So, here we will discuss these issues in detail and how they are impacting coffee taste and production.
Climate change affects quality and quantity:
Supply issues are becoming a big concern for coffee. If the coffee supply declines, then later it will impact the economy.
So, these problems are serious, and we need to take corrective actions that our future generations will be able to enjoy this luxury. However, the coffee industry is dominated by the two most prominent coffee types:
- High-quality Arabica
- Robusta which is low quality
But many other wild species need to improve the quality then it can contribute to supply. Scientists are now experimenting and creating plants that can breed in drought or worst weather conditions. Due to climate change, a fungal disease likes to live in a humid or mild warm environment. According to the stats, a disease called coffee RUST in central America is behind cutting coffee production by 15%. Due to this, the prices have increased up to 33% in the USA.
The surge in rainfall affects production:
Rainfall is another significant sign of climate change. If there is more rain, then it affects production by increasing mould. Apart from this, the increase in rainfall interfere with harvesting issues that is a big issue, and we should talk more about it. We all know due to climate change, it is hard to predict when and up to what extent the weather is going to change. As a result of all these conditions, it is hard to predict what weather conditions we will face after ten years.
Small scale growers, coffee, and climate change:
If we read about coffee production, 70% of the coffee supply comes from small growers. The small suppliers have landed up to two hectares or less. One of the biggest reasons small farmers struggle is that the Arabica coffee type demands high elevation for growth.
So, farmers plant coffee in mountainous areas where it is impossible to grow on a large scale. Thus, the coffee market will go down if the production is down due to climate change, pests, and diseases.
Apart from this, the small farmers don’t have the resources to buy a new piece of land, so the solution isn’t that simple. However, all these activities are giving economic and production hits to the local farmers. So, the challenges are severe, and small-scale growers don’t have adequate sources to shift to a new land.
Climate change is a reason behind coffee extinction:
Coffee plants are sensitive, and they need variation in humidity and temperature for perfect growth. South America, Africa, and Asia are facing the severe challenges of climate change. However, these regions contribute a big chunk to the coffee supply. But climate change and global warming are affecting the production of Arabica.
For instance, Latin America is experiencing the worst wave of global warming. Due to this, rainfall and droughts have increased in most of the regions.
According to the Royal Botanical Gardens:
“Coffee plants could be extinct by the end of the year 2080.”
Apart from this, other factors like parasites and diseases have changed the flowering period of coffee plants.
Earlier, we have discussed the difference in coffee taste and the hurdles that growers are facing. It all happened due to climate change. But there are some approaches that we can adopt to increase the annual production.
For instance, the change in the irrigation system and preserved water are the two main things that even small growers can adopt. Apart from this, if farmers get investments, they can move towards high altitudes to maintain the altitude that arabica cultivation needs. But if we don’t adopt the right path, then global climate can increase the cost of coffee.
According to the International Coffee Organization, due to a shortage in supply, the world will have to change its taste or pay high prices.
Note: If you want to read in detail about types of coffee flavours, coffee taste, then read the information here. Coffee is our companion, so we should know everything about this fantastic drink.
I am an Italian coffee lover that pushed for the love of this “amazing drug” decided to come to London to study about coffee and its different extraction procedures and tastes.